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Ideal conversion efficiency of p–n junction solar cell as a function of band gap. The fill factor increases with the increase of the open-circuit voltage. The upper limit of the conversion efficiency is a strong function of the band gap energy. 6 eV, as shown in Fig. 5 and 1 sun. The band gap energy between 1 eV and 2 eV is suitable for solar cell to achieve relatively high efficiency. 4. 1. Energy Losses of Ideal Solar Cell [12] There are several reasons for the limited efficiency of an ideal p–n junction solar cell.

The liquid electrolyte by an organic solid hole conductor like OMeTAD [5] or a polymer [6], obtaining a hybrid solar cell. When the electrolyte replacing material is an inorganic solid-state hole conductor like CuSCN [7] or CuI [8], the cells are called dye sensitized heterojunctions (DSHs), or interpenetrating heterojunctions (i-hets). The last step on the way from a Grätzel cell to an all solid-state solar cell is the replacement of the organic dye by a solid-state absorber like CdTe [9], a-Si [10], or CuInS2 [11]; the cells thus obtained are the so-called extremely thin absorber (ETA) cells [12].

Often, a macroscopic solar cell is an assembly of a multitude of almost identical elementary cells; this assembly is in the form of two interpenetrating networks. This nanostructure is a common feature of all cell types studied here, though there may be, for example, differences in the distance scale. What actually discerns the various cell types is the nature of their unit cell. qxd 11/11/2006 12:17 PM Page 47 47 Device Modeling of Nano-Structured Solar Cells hole transport electron transport photon Fig.

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A bound for the least Gaussian prime w with a by Matsui H.

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