By Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide
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Expectancies of a technological revolution are linked to nanotechnology, and certainly the iteration, amendment and usage of gadgets with tiniest dimensions already permeates technology and study in a fashion that the absence of nanotechnology is not any longer attainable. It has improved to an self reliant interdisciplinary box, its nice luck as a result of practical mixture of actual, mechanical and molecular innovations.
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Reprinted with permission from Ref. ; © 2006, American Institute of Physics. 13 Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image obtained from a PS-b-PMMA ﬁlm (800 nm) annealed in an electric ﬁeld of 25 V μm−1. The block copolymer ﬁlm is lying on top of a dark Au-ﬁlm, which was used as the lower electrode. The upper electrode has been removed. Cylinders oriented normal to the substrate pass all the way through the sample. Reprinted with permission from Ref. ; © 2006, Wiley-VCH. silicon ﬁeld effect transistors , and FLASH memory devices .
Reprinted with permission from Ref. ; © 2006, American Institute of Physics. 4 Rod–Coil Block Copolymers There are essentially two types of BCP, both of which highlight interesting avenues for BCP self-assembly. “Coil–coil” BCPs, which are the most commonly studied, contain A and B blocks that can both be theoretically modeled as ﬂexible chains. “Rod–coil” BCPs, on the other hand, have one polymer chain that is best represented as a rigid rod due to its stiff nature and anisotropic molecular shape.
Since then, new technologies have enabled this march down to smaller feature sizes. Photoresists with smaller pixel sizes such as molecular glass resists [75, 76], new processes such as nanoimprint lithography and step and ﬂash lithography , as well as the development of smaller wavelength exposure sources , have catalyzed the production of feature sizes down below 50 nm. The exposure wavelength, however, has become the rate-determining step in our ability to pattern small feature sizes.
Advanced Nanomaterials, Two Volume Edition by Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide