By Guy P. Brasseur, Susan Solomon
"[…] an enticing and well-written evaluation of the present prestige of our wisdom of the composition of the center surroundings and the fundamental radiative, dynamical and photochemical strategies which keep it." (Bulletin American Meteorological Society)
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Additional resources for Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library)
Ravishankara, Reactive uptake of ClONO2 onto sulfuric acid due to reaction with HCl and H2 O. J Phys Chem: 98, 5728, 1994. R. Ravishankara, and S. Solomon, Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: A framework for model calculations. J Geophys Res: 99, 3615, 1994. , Reaction of N2 O5 with H2 O on bulk liquids and on particles and the eﬀect of dissolved HNO3 , Geophys Res Lett: 24, 1087, 1997a. , Surface-speciﬁc reactions on liquid. J Phys Chem: 101, 4998, 1997b. , Spectra of Diatomic Molecules.
For Σ states, Σ+ → Σ+ and Σ− → Σ− transitions are allowed, while Σ+ → Σ− transitions are unfavorable. 3) This process is unfavorable because it involves a change in spin, a change in Λ of two, and a g → g transition. Thus its probability is relatively low, which is reﬂected in a time constant for radiative decay of almost an hour. Similarly, the cross section for production of O2 (1 ∆g ) by photon absorption from the ground state 1 O2 (3 Σ− g ) + hν → O2 ( ∆g ) is small. 1 21 Thermodynamic Considerations Enthalpy, Entropy, and Free Energy The basic principles governing the reactivity of chemical substances lie in the thermodynamic properties of these species.
Typical values of A are 1 µm2 per cm3 of air in the case of background sulfuric aerosols (10 to 100 times more after a large volcanic eruption), 1 µm2 per cm3 in the case of nitric acid trihydrates, 10 µm2 cm−3 for liquid ternary solutions and 10-100 µm2 per cm3 in the case of ice particles. The reaction probability γ depends in general on the physical nature and chemical composition of the particle and on temperature. The composition of the liquid or solid particles is derived from thermodynamic considerations.
Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library) by Guy P. Brasseur, Susan Solomon