By Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)
Air pollutants is ubiquitous in industrialized societies, inflicting a number of environmental difficulties. it truly is therefore necessary to video display and decrease pollutants degrees. a few plant species already are being exploited as detectors (for phytomonitoring) and as scavengers (for phytoremediation) of air toxins. With advances in biotechnology, it's now possible to switch crops for a much wider diversity of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation functions. pollution and Plant Biotechnology provides contemporary ends up in this box, together with plant responses in the course of phytomonitoring, pollution-resistant plant species, imaging analysis of plant responses, and using novel transgenic crops, besides studies of uncomplicated plant body structure and biochemistry the place applicable. Researchers and scholars operating in plant biotechnology and the environmental sciences or contemplating new components of research will locate this quantity a precious reference.
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Additional info for Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation
Reduction of Rubisco activity in 03-stressed plants is usualIy associated with a decrease in amount of Rubisco. A loss in Rubisco may also play an important role in the acceleration of premature senescence as Rubisco is a major leaf protein (Pell et al. 1994). Ozone was also found to reduce mRNA levels of both the smalI (rbcS) and large (rbcL) subunits of Rubisco which, in turn, lowered Rubisco levels within the chloroplast (PelI et aJ. 1994), and thus reduced the rate of CO 2 fixation and productivity.
1997). However, the cause of forest decline appears to be the result of complex interactions between natural ecosystems and environmental stress factors, including cold injury, drought stress, soil acidity, aluminum toxicity, insect attacks, high concentrations of 0 3, and acid precipitation. Forest decline may be caused by a combination of factors, even when one factor is dominant. 8. Combination of Air Pollutants Plants in the natural environment often are exposed simultaneously to a combination of many air pollutants.
Using a lower PAN concentration (50 ppb), a combination of 0 3 and PAN induced less injury on ponderosa pine needles than did 0 3 alone (Davis 1977). Simultaneous exposures to 0 3 (100-400 ppb) and PAN (10-40 ppb for petunia and 30-100 ppb for 6- to 7-day-old kidney bean) induced significantly less injury to petunia and kidney bean than either pollutant alone (Nouchi et al. 1984a). Generally, the antagonistic response may occur at the low PAN concentration in the combination of PAN and 0 3• A Mixture of 0 3 + S02 + N0 2 is more realistic pollution than the combination of S02 and N0 2 • Turf grasses exposed to these gases at a concentration of 150 ppb each showed more foliar injury and greater reduction in leaf area compared with Responses of Whole Plants to Air Pollutants 29 exposures to the pollutants applied singly (Elkiey and Ormrod 1980).
Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation by Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)