Pollution

New PDF release: An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

By Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0124514502

ISBN-13: 9780124514508

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Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

Example text

9 Relationship of the solar zenith angle li a to the latitude A, the solar inclination angle <5, and the hour angle h. The 4> here denotes the azimuthal angle of the sun from the south. , from sunrise or sunset to solar noon. After performing the simple integration we get Q = ~ (~m Y (sin AsinoH + cod cos 0 sin H). 18) In Eq. 18), H in the first term on the right is expressed in units of radians (180 = tt rad). 5% from unity. 9674 on July 5. 18) allows us to calculate the distribution of the daily solar energy per unit area over the top of the global atmosphere as functions of latitude and day of year.

The results are shown in Fig. 1O. IJ C ::::> r-r« 10 0 Oo _10° -J _20 0 _30 0 _40 0 _50 0 _60 0 _70° _80° _90 0 \ ~l JAN MONTH Fig. 10 The daily variation of insolation at the top of the atmosphere as a function oflatitude and day of year in units of cal ern"? day-l (after List, 1958). 48 2 Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere closest to the earth in January (northern hemisphere winter), the distribution of solar energy is slightly asymmetric, and the maximum radiation received in the southern hemisphere is greater than that received in the northern hemisphere.

This angle, representing the obliquity of the 36 2 Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere VERNAL Fig. 4 EQUINOX The earth's orbit about the sun and effects of the obliquity of the ecliptic on the seasons. 5 with a period of about 41,000 years. In addition to these two factors, there is a very slow westward motion of the equinoctial points along the ecliptic, called precession, caused by the attraction of other planets upon the earth. Owing to the wobbling motion, the time when the earth is closest to the sun advances by about 25 minutes each year.

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An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)


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