By M.D. Fulton Roberts
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But what is doubtful about D and d is perfectly certain about E and e or C and c, or, for that matter, any other blood group systems to be discussed. The presumption of d's existence is a matter of convenience in exposition and will be maintained, but it is necessary always to bear in mind that the existence of d is not proved, 36 HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS A general element of doubt should also be voiced at this point. All t h a t is said in this chapter about the R h complex represents a working hypothesis widely accepted for some years.
E. those reacting with Cw but not with C or c) is well attested, and in one case at least this antibody has caused hsemolytic disease of the newborn. Since both anti-C and anti-C10 are known, it would be reasonable to suppose t h a t C and Cw are distinct substances even though they are related. But antibodies reacting with both C and Cw are common 40 HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS and appear to arise from immunisation with C alone. These antibodies are, for convenience, called anti-C + Cw9 but they do not appear to be mixtures of independent antibodies, for they cannot be separated by absorption (as, for example, a mixture of anti-C + anti-D can).
The blood group Duffy is chosen. This group receives its name from the patient on whom investigations led to its discovery, and with his permission. I t was not possible to use D or Du as shorthand symbols for this group because these or similar symbols were bespoken in the R h system ; hence F y was adopted. The differentiation of alleles by small and capital letters was avoided and the symbols F y a and Fy & used instead. This has the advantage of not implying any dominance or other inequality between them, and a further 24 alleles could be discovered without embarrassing the notation by running out of superscript letters.
An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts