By Elie Maricau
This e-book makes a speciality of modeling, simulation and research of analog circuit getting older. First, all very important nanometer CMOS actual results leading to circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor getting older compact versions for circuit simulation are mentioned and several other tools for effective circuit reliability simulation are defined and in comparison. eventually, the impression of transistor getting older on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are pointed out and the impression of know-how scaling is mentioned.
The versions and simulation concepts defined within the ebook are meant as an relief for gadget engineers, circuit designers and the EDA neighborhood to appreciate and to mitigate the influence of getting older results on nanometer CMOS ICs.
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Additional info for Analog IC Reliability in Nanometer CMOS
C DAHC. 4 Temporal Unreliability 25 gate electrode and for high drain voltages the electric field at the drain leads to avalanche multiplication resulting in drain avalanche hot carrier generation. e. heavier) than electrons, the channel hot carrier effect in nMOS devices is shown to be more significant than in pMOS devices (Hu et al. 1985). 2. Substrate hot electron (SHE) or substrate hot hole (SHH) injection is the result of a high positive or a high negative bias at the bulk of the transistor.
The effects depend on the circuit layout, the neighboring environment, process conditions and the impact the geometry and structure of the circuit and can lead to yield loss. e. resulting in malfunctioning circuits or circuits with degraded performance respectively. Temporal unreliability effects, on the other hand, are timevarying and change depending on operating conditions such as the operating voltage, temperature, switching activity, presence and activity of neighboring circuits. g. g. ). In the following sections, these effects are discussed in more detail.
2008). This phenomenon greatly complicates the evaluation of BTI, its modeling, and the extrapolation of its impact on circuits. It currently appears that BTI degradation does not fully recover when the stress is removed, hence leaving a permanent residual degradation. BTI degradation can therefore be modeled as a combination of a permanent and a recoverable degradation component (Grasser and Kaczer 2009; Maricau et al. 6) Recoverable Part where VTH is a function of the transistor gate-oxide electric field (E ox ) and the temperature (T ).
Analog IC Reliability in Nanometer CMOS by Elie Maricau